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The argument that aesthetic is a western concept is based on the separation between European and non-European culture. In other words, this category is set to tell the differences from western art and primitive. It underlies the assumption that western art is civilized. Furthermore, fine art, such as classic music, from European culture is the only type of art, which is qualified to be displayed in art galleries or museums. Contrasts to western fine art, the objects from primitive societies were often being viewed as practical tool for some specific functions. The researches that were carried by anthropology paid little attention on objects' form but focused on the analyzing their cultures, histories and meanings. However, under influences form emphasizing on symbol bring anthropology ant art together. "Interest in hoe symbols were organized and how they encoded meaning, rather than in the meaning themselves, closed the gap between the anthropology of art and the anthropology of religion". (Morphy, 1994: 659) As aesthetic has no longer belong to western societies, it has been applied to non-western cultures. Additionally, it is obviously that aesthetic existing in every culture but be valued an appreciated in very different perspectives. Primitive art crafts used to be displayed in ethnographic museums instead of art galleries. Contrast to pleasing "fine art", which without any function, primitive objects usually severed some specific functions. However, in Nilotic society, as Coote described, cattle not only provide necessity needs but also beauty. People would discuss the horn shape or color. If there has a cattle that be regarded as an art craft, it would be separated from productive work and only for people to appreciate. On the other hand, though there are many of primitive fixed into the utility category, they still could be view as work of art for many of them were designed deliberately. Art objects are often produced in the context of ceremonial exchange or political ritual. Since the objects were produced to display to enforce the political or supernatural power, these objects are meant to be delicate. That is, many objects could not only be view as art craft but also in many other ways as well. For example, a Marquesan double-headed club, which was carved with several sophisticated symbols, was a weapon in welfare but also function as ceremonial staffs. However, according to Morphy (1994), art crafts could fulfill with other functions or had a very different function with their early stage of their history; the objects function were not the factors that make them become works of art. Either in developed countries or in primitive indigenous societies, the concept of aesthetics could be easily observed. But the concept "aesthetics" vary in every societies and contexts. Therefore, in order to understand and analysis objects form other cultures, it is necessary to realize art, categorize systems in those ethnographic circumstances. Since work of art bind with tradition or relationships between people, societies and objects, it is necessary to appreciate them within their original social context. In addition to analyze in single culture, between different societies would sometimes share similar form of objects or aesthetic ideas. For example, the Yolngu people, the Wahgi Valley people and the Mende people hold similar aesthetic effect, brilliance. But they present the concept in various ways and combined with different values. In Yolngu case, people painting with fine crosshatched lined and be believed to connect with ancestral past. The shimmery painting is also interpreted as the ancestral power shinning. In Wahgi body painting, they link shinny effect with images of health, fertility and power as people decorated themselves for war. For Mende people, rather than bright colors, they associate darkness with female initiated, creating positive images. (Morphy, 1994) Sometimes in different cultures, the similar forms of images or objects could be found but contain various meanings or values, even opposite to each other. Body decoration exists in several places. In Wahgi Valley, the body decoration is to present with male values as well as group identity and power. Contrast to Wahgi Valley emphasize on detail decorations, Walbiri and Yolngu take over all images and value much more important. In the Sende society, senior member would wear mask, which constructs the female beauty and provide a way to interpret female self. Even apply to same object, different parts of the object would be emphasized among several point of views. For instance, as Coote mentioned, ox and cattle are mainly pleasing aesthetic source. But among different societies such as Nilotic, Nuer and Western Dinka, people value ox or cattle based on different part. Some of them appreciate the horn, some exaggerate the hump and others focus on its fatness. These factors would be observed from their sculptures or paintings. In addition to appearance of objects would representation some specific cultural context, there are also some factors would influence how people interpret objects. For instance, the place, where objects be displayed and appreciated would also express different image to people or visitors. Such as, the same sculpture, which be placed in a fine art museum, a public plaza or on a tomb, could cause very different impact. Moreover, technical issue would have some effect as well. Technology could radically change the image of objects, For example, nowadays people could gain or make dyeing material easily, which makes the valuation of vegetable dyeing more precious in developed area, but be belittled in others. Within these non-western societies, artists or craftsmen are usually effaced during the process. For the objects they make are mainly applied to enhance the king's authority or other authorities' power. Instead of creating brand new image or type of work, they produce object as a new token of existing type. For instance, the artists in Trobriand, the carving mostly display the aesthetic judgment in the cultural context rather than exhibit craftsman or artist personal novelty or any uniqueness. Moreover, even if an artist has power to design some work as an art object, the production would also constrained by the context that the artist be. Nevertheless, due to the increasing of interaction between developed countries and third or forth world, such as tourism and international business, the indigenous aesthetic criteria has adopted and been affected by western perspective of beauty, and caused some changes on objects' form or design. Similar to contemporary art filed, the products are made form the artists, who have already won public's recognition, have more possibility and chance to be regarded as works of art. In addition, instead of being invisible within the progress, sometimes the artist would be regarded as a member of power elite. Since some art crafts would serve with political intention, some craftsman would be separated from public in order to conceal "the fact that there is the technical mastery which mediates the relation between the rulers and the ruled". (Gell, 1992: 52) Art crafts are not only shaped or encoded by the cultural context but also influenced by social relationship of its producers; it is artists' power to make things with great effect. Due to tourism, films, exhibitions and cultural festivals, not only third world encounter with developed countries but also most societies and cultures are linked within a world system. Value and idea are expressed widely and influenced by each other. Therefore the aesthetic concept would also shift cross cultures. "The European institutional definition of art is often relevant to the production of objects by indigenous peoples who may intend to produce work that will accepted as a art by European markets". (Morphy, 1994: 654) That is, beside to apply idea of aesthetic to various cultures, the concept itself would also become cross-cultural.
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An essay on Western Art Aesthetic
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An Essay On Western Art Aesthetic

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              The argument that aesthetic is a western concept is based on the separation between European and non-European culture. In other words, this category is set to tell the differences from western art and primitive. It underlies the assumption that western art is civilized. Furthermore, fine art, such as classic music, from European culture is the only type of art, which is qualified to be displayed in art galleries or museums. Contrasts to western fine art, the objects from primitive societies were often being viewed as practical tool for some specific functions. The researches that were carried by anthropology paid little attention on objects' form but focused on the analyzing their cultures, histories and meanings. However, under influences form emphasizing on symbol bring anthropology ant art together. "Interest in hoe symbols were organized and how they encoded meaning, rather than in the meaning themselves, closed the gap between the anthropology of art and the anthropology of religion". (Morphy, 1994: 659)
             
             
              As aesthetic has no longer belong to western societies, it has been applied to non-western cultures. Additionally, it is obviously that aesthetic existing in every culture but be valued an appreciated in very different perspectives.
             
              Primitive art crafts used to be displayed in ethnographic museums instead of art galleries. Contrast to pleasing "fine art", which without any function, primitive objects usually severed some specific functions. However, in Nilotic society, as Coote described, cattle not only provide necessity needs but also beauty. People would discuss the horn shape or color. If there has a cattle that be regarded as an art craft, it would be separated from productive work and only for people to appreciate. On the other hand, though there are many of primitive fixed into the utility category, they still could be view as work of art for many of them were designed deliberately. Art objects are often produced in the context of ceremonial exchange or political ritual. Since the objects were produced to display to enforce the political or supernatural power, these objects are meant to be delicate. That is, many objects could not only be view as art craft but also in many other ways as well. For example, a Marquesan double-headed club, which was carved with several sophisticated symbols, was a weapon in welfare but also function as ceremonial staffs.
             
              However, according to Morphy (1994), art crafts could fulfill with other functions or had a very different function with their early stage of their history; the objects function were not the factors that make them become works of art. Either in developed countries or in primitive indigenous societies, the concept of aesthetics could be easily observed. But the concept "aesthetics" vary in every societies and contexts. Therefore, in order to understand and analysis objects form other cultures, it is necessary to realize art, categorize systems in those ethnographic circumstances.
             
              Since work of art bind with tradition or relationships between people, societies and objects, it is necessary to appreciate them within their original social context. In addition to analyze in single culture, between different societies would sometimes share similar form of objects or aesthetic ideas. For example, the Yolngu people, the Wahgi Valley people and the Mende people hold similar aesthetic effect, brilliance. But they present the concept in various ways and combined with different values. In Yolngu case, people painting with fine crosshatched lined and be believed to connect with ancestral past. The shimmery painting is also interpreted as the ancestral power shinning. In Wahgi body painting, they link shinny effect with images of health, fertility and power as people decorated themselves for war. For Mende people, rather than bright colors, they associate darkness with female initiated, creating positive images. (Morphy, 1994)
             
              Sometimes in different cultures, the similar forms of images or objects could be found but contain various meanings or values, even opposite to each other. Body decoration exists in several places. In Wahgi Valley, the body decoration is to present with male values as well as group identity and power. Contrast to Wahgi Valley emphasize on detail decorations, Walbiri and Yolngu take over all images and value much more important. In the Sende society, senior member would wear mask, which constructs the female beauty and provide a way to interpret female self. Even apply to same object, different parts of the object would be emphasized among several point of views. For instance, as Coote mentioned, ox and cattle are mainly pleasing aesthetic source. But among different societies such as Nilotic, Nuer and Western Dinka, people value ox or cattle based on different part. Some of them appreciate the horn, some exaggerate the hump and others focus on its fatness. These factors would be observed from their sculptures or paintings.
             
              In addition to appearance of objects would representation some specific cultural context, there are also some factors would influence how people interpret objects. For instance, the place, where objects be displayed and appreciated would also express different image to people or visitors. Such as, the same sculpture, which be placed in a fine art museum, a public plaza or on a tomb, could cause very different impact. Moreover, technical issue would have some effect as well. Technology could radically change the image of objects, For example, nowadays people could gain or make dyeing material easily, which makes the valuation of vegetable dyeing more precious in developed area, but be belittled in others.
             
              Within these non-western societies, artists or craftsmen are usually effaced during the process. For the objects they make are mainly applied to enhance the king's authority or other authorities' power. Instead of creating brand new image or type of work, they produce object as a new token of existing type. For instance, the artists in Trobriand, the carving mostly display the aesthetic judgment in the cultural context rather than exhibit craftsman or artist personal novelty or any uniqueness. Moreover, even if an artist has power to design some work as an art object, the production would also constrained by the context that the artist be. Nevertheless, due to the increasing of interaction between developed countries and third or forth world, such as tourism and international business, the indigenous aesthetic criteria has adopted and been affected by western perspective of beauty, and caused some changes on objects' form or design.
             
              Similar to contemporary art filed, the products are made form the artists, who have already won public's recognition, have more possibility and chance to be regarded as works of art. In addition, instead of being invisible within the progress, sometimes the artist would be regarded as a member of power elite. Since some art crafts would serve with political intention, some craftsman would be separated from public in order to conceal "the fact that there is the technical mastery which mediates the relation between the rulers and the ruled". (Gell, 1992: 52) Art crafts are not only shaped or encoded by the cultural context but also influenced by social relationship of its producers; it is artists' power to make things with great effect.
             
              Due to tourism, films, exhibitions and cultural festivals, not only third world encounter with developed countries but also most societies and cultures are linked within a world system. Value and idea are expressed widely and influenced by each other. Therefore the aesthetic concept would also shift cross cultures. "The European institutional definition of art is often relevant to the production of objects by indigenous peoples who may intend to produce work that will accepted as a art by European markets". (Morphy, 1994: 654) That is, beside to apply idea of aesthetic to various cultures, the concept itself would also become cross-cultural.
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