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Lacrosse is defined as a ball game invented by American Indians, now played by two teams who try to propel a ball into each other's goal by means of long-handled hooked sticks that are loosely strung with a kind of netted pouch (Farlex, Inc.). Behind every shot taken in a lacrosse game, elements of biomechanics are implemented. Biomechanics is the "sport science" field that applies the laws of mechanics (movements, body angles, joint positions, etc.), biomedical engineering, and physics (gravity, forces, velocities, etc.) to athletic performance (What is 3D Biomechanics). Ben Shear "is a frequent presenter and writer on various topics related to athletic performance, including a presentation on Biomechanics" (Biomechanics of the Lacrosse Shot and Their Underlying Physical Requirements). Shear commenced a 3-D biomechanical study to show the physical fundamentals behind a flawless lacrosse shot. Lacrosse involves a complex rotary motion entailing a kinetic linking from your feet to your arms. Kinetic linking is associated with kinetic energy. Kinetic energy is "the form of energy contained in an objects motion" (Bloomfield, 31). Each body segment is a "link in the chain" (i.e. hips, arms, stick, etc.). In preparation for just the right shot, a good player needs to understand the basic rotary mechanics, the first link in the chain. The initiation of the shooting motion begins in the lower body, one needs to have the ability to create a pelvic torque. It starts from the bottom and works its way up. When you add gravity, momentum, body rotation, and stabilization together, torque is your ending result. Gravity utilizes a vertical force while momentum employs a horizontal force. "A force can produce a torque and a torque can produce a force" (Bloomfield, 53). In the rotation of the body, the player is focusing more on a rotational motion. According to The Physics of Everyday Life: How Things Work, "rotational motion is defined as any motion around a fixed point." The mechanical aspect of your lower body results in the speed of a player's shot and the accuracy behind making the goal. Without the movement of the lower body, a shot would end up anywhere but the back of the net. The lower body helps a player produce a straight shot so the ball winds up leaving the stick in the direction that the shooter intended. Once accomplishing the motion of your hips, a player must focus on the next link in the chain, pulling the stick away from his body, preparing to move forward (accelerate) with a shot. A goalie uses his or her angle of perception to watch the ball and to make a save. The intent is to hide the head of the stick behind the player's body to decrease the visibility of the ball to the goalie. The more a shooter hides the head of the stick the less likely the goalie with stop the ball from accelerating into the back of the net. When the act of pulling the stick takes place, a shift in weight occurs. "This shift in balance enables the player to release the ball while allowing his hips and back to recoil and urge the shoot motion in a forward direction. This forward acceleration causes an increase in the player's velocity, zero to forward" (Russo, 1). Depending on the magnitude of your acceleration depends on how "hard or fast" the player pushes off the ground with their foot allowing them to make the initial forward progress. Without the push off the ground, no forward movement would be possible. In lacrosse, we want a quick sprint to goal to dodge the opponents and fake the goalie out. "However, if the race is a sprint and you need to reach top speed as quickly as possible, you spring forward hard and the surface exerts an enormous forward force on you. The magnitude of your acceleration is large and your velocity changes rapidly" (Bloomfield, 6). Direction for the player's acceleration is key. Since the intentions of a lacrosse player are to move forward towards to goal, the direction is clearly stated and accomplished. After achieving the correct forward acceleration, we come down to the final link, the shot. The elements needed to complete a successful shot are the movements of the arms and the shooter's wrist snap. A player must extend their stick away from their body in order to maintain the correct stance to produce the most accurate angle/s to shoot. "The longer the lever arm, the less force it takes to cause a particular angular acceleration" (Bloomfield, 53). For a player to achieve torque when attempting to complete a lacrosse shot, he must push down in a perpendicular motion away from the axis (hips). If a player is holding the stick in the correct way, he will be following the "right-hand rule." In other words, "if you point your right index finger in the direction of the lever arm and your bent middle finger in the direction of the force, then your thumb will point in the direction of the torque (Bloomfield, 55). This allows the shot to fly straight forward into the back of the net with high velocity. However, shooting the ball forward, with no changing angles ,is not always the best option; the goalie will stop the ball eventually. A shooter has to assess the goalie's pre shot preparation, aka stance, positioning, baiting (trying to make the shooter take a certain shot), etc. This is where the wrist snap comes in. While propelling your arms forward to take a shot, the final task is to snap your wrist. If a player were to just shoot with their arms without the wrist snap, the ball would fly straight with no "fake" out to the goalie, making it an easy save. The snap creates a downward motion allowing the ball to plummet to the ground creating a bounce shot. Following Newton's Third Law of Motion, when shooting the bounce shot; it has an equal and opposite reaction. Bounce shots are the hardest for a goalie to visually see and to prevent from going into the cage. The whole process of making a flawless shot is work. Work is expressed as force times the distance. "If you're not pushing or it's not moving then you're not working" (Bloomfield, 30). Energy is conserved because forces come in equal but opposite pairs according to Newton's Third Law of Motion. "For every force that one object exerts on a second object, there is an equal but oppositely directed force that the second object exerts on the first object" (Bloomfield, 26). The conserved energy cannot be created or destroyed but can by converted from one form to another (Bloomfield, 30). In other words, we used kinetic linking throughout the whole attempt to create the perfect shot. Scoring a goal is more than just shooting a ball into a net. In order to have a successful shot, you have to master the physics behind each element: rotary motion, acceleration, and the science behind the shot. Once each "link in the chain" has effectively been accomplished in a correct manner, a player will maximize his speed and velocity to execute the ideal shot.
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Essay on a Lacrosse Shot
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Essay On A Lacrosse Shot

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              Lacrosse is defined as a ball game invented by American Indians, now played by two teams who try to propel a ball into each other's goal by means of long-handled hooked sticks that are loosely strung with a kind of netted pouch (Farlex, Inc. ). Behind every shot taken in a lacrosse game, elements of biomechanics are implemented. Biomechanics is the "sport science" field that applies the laws of mechanics (movements, body angles, joint positions, etc. ), biomedical engineering, and physics (gravity, forces, velocities, etc. ) to athletic performance (What is 3D Biomechanics).
             
              Ben Shear "is a frequent presenter and writer on various topics related to athletic performance, including a presentation on Biomechanics" (Biomechanics of the Lacrosse Shot and Their Underlying Physical Requirements). Shear commenced a 3-D biomechanical study to show the physical fundamentals behind a flawless lacrosse shot. Lacrosse involves a complex rotary motion entailing a kinetic linking from your feet to your arms. Kinetic linking is associated with kinetic energy. Kinetic energy is "the form of energy contained in an objects motion" (Bloomfield, 31). Each body segment is a "link in the chain" (i. e. hips, arms, stick, etc. ).
             
              In preparation for just the right shot, a good player needs to understand the basic rotary mechanics, the first link in the chain. The initiation of the shooting motion begins in the lower body, one needs to have the ability to create a pelvic torque. It starts from the bottom and works its way up. When you add gravity, momentum, body rotation, and stabilization together, torque is your ending result. Gravity utilizes a vertical force while momentum employs a horizontal force. "A force can produce a torque and a torque can produce a force" (Bloomfield, 53). In the rotation of the body, the player is focusing more on a rotational motion. According to The Physics of Everyday Life: How Things Work, "rotational motion is defined as any motion around a fixed point. " The mechanical aspect of your lower body results in the speed of a player's shot and the accuracy behind making the goal. Without the movement of the lower body, a shot would end up anywhere but the back of the net. The lower body helps a player produce a straight shot so the ball winds up leaving the stick in the direction that the shooter intended.
             
              Once accomplishing the motion of your hips, a player must focus on the next link in the chain, pulling the stick away from his body, preparing to move forward (accelerate) with a shot. A goalie uses his or her angle of perception to watch the ball and to make a save. The intent is to hide the head of the stick behind the player's body to decrease the visibility of the ball to the goalie. The more a shooter hides the head of the stick the less likely the goalie with stop the ball from accelerating into the back of the net. When the act of pulling the stick takes place, a shift in weight occurs. "This shift in balance enables the player to release the ball while allowing his hips and back to recoil and urge the shoot motion in a forward direction. This forward acceleration causes an increase in the player's velocity, zero to forward" (Russo, 1). Depending on the magnitude of your acceleration depends on how "hard or fast" the player pushes off the ground with their foot allowing them to make the initial forward progress. Without the push off the ground, no forward movement would be possible.
             
              In lacrosse, we want a quick sprint to goal to dodge the opponents and fake the goalie out. "However, if the race is a sprint and you need to reach top speed as quickly as possible, you spring forward hard and the surface exerts an enormous forward force on you. The magnitude of your acceleration is large and your velocity changes rapidly" (Bloomfield, 6). Direction for the player's acceleration is key. Since the intentions of a lacrosse player are to move forward towards to goal, the direction is clearly stated and accomplished.
             
              After achieving the correct forward acceleration, we come down to the final link, the shot. The elements needed to complete a successful shot are the movements of the arms and the shooter's wrist snap. A player must extend their stick away from their body in order to maintain the correct stance to produce the most accurate angle/s to shoot. "The longer the lever arm, the less force it takes to cause a particular angular acceleration" (Bloomfield, 53). For a player to achieve torque when attempting to complete a lacrosse shot, he must push down in a perpendicular motion away from the axis (hips). If a player is holding the stick in the correct way, he will be following the "right-hand rule. " In other words, "if you point your right index finger in the direction of the lever arm and your bent middle finger in the direction of the force, then your thumb will point in the direction of the torque (Bloomfield, 55). This allows the shot to fly straight forward into the back of the net with high velocity.
             
              However, shooting the ball forward, with no changing angles ,is not always the best option; the goalie will stop the ball eventually. A shooter has to assess the goalie's pre shot preparation, aka stance, positioning, baiting (trying to make the shooter take a certain shot), etc. This is where the wrist snap comes in. While propelling your arms forward to take a shot, the final task is to snap your wrist. If a player were to just shoot with their arms without the wrist snap, the ball would fly straight with no "fake" out to the goalie, making it an easy save. The snap creates a downward motion allowing the ball to plummet to the ground creating a bounce shot. Following Newton's Third Law of Motion, when shooting the bounce shot; it has an equal and opposite reaction. Bounce shots are the hardest for a goalie to visually see and to prevent from going into the cage.
             
              The whole process of making a flawless shot is work. Work is expressed as force times the distance. "If you're not pushing or it's not moving then you're not working" (Bloomfield, 30). Energy is conserved because forces come in equal but opposite pairs according to Newton's Third Law of Motion. "For every force that one object exerts on a second object, there is an equal but oppositely directed force that the second object exerts on the first object" (Bloomfield, 26). The conserved energy cannot be created or destroyed but can by converted from one form to another (Bloomfield, 30). In other words, we used kinetic linking throughout the whole attempt to create the perfect shot.
             
              Scoring a goal is more than just shooting a ball into a net. In order to have a successful shot, you have to master the physics behind each element: rotary motion, acceleration, and the science behind the shot. Once each "link in the chain" has effectively been accomplished in a correct manner, a player will maximize his speed and velocity to execute the ideal shot.
Lacrosse Essay Sports Essay 
"Biomechanics of the Lacrosse Shot and Their Underlying Physical Requirements." 16 January 2009. Athletic Edge Lacrosse. 2010 February 26 .

Bloomfield, Louis. The Physics of Everyday Life: How Things Work . 4th ed. NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Print.

Farlex, Inc. The Free Dictionary. December 2004. 26 February 2010 .

"Lacrosse Shooting Techniques." Lacrosse Information. 2007. Lacrosse-
Information.com, Web. 25 Feb 2010. information.com/lacrosse-shooting-techniques.html>.

Russo, Katherine. He Shoots, He Scores. 2009. February 28, 2010.

"What is 3D Biomechanics." 2008. Athletic Edge Lacrosse. 26 February 2010 .
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